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HISTORY OF BIRD STUDIES IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION

On the territory of the contemporary Volgograd region, bird studies began in the second half of the 18th century. First ones were conducted by the heads of large academic expeditions, namely: S. G. Gmelin (1771, 1777), I. I. Lepekhin (1771, 1795), and P. S. Pallas (1788). Therefore, this period of ornithological research can be called the “academic period”.

SALINITY INFLUENCE ON CHIRONOMID LARVAE (DIPTERA, CHIRONOMIDAE) IN THE CRIMEAN HYPERSALINE LAKES

The paper summarizes the results of our long-term research (2007 - 2015) of chironomids in 38 saline and hypersaline lakes in the Crimea. Chironomid larvae were found at salinities up to 340 g/l, and their occurrence frequency decreased as salinity rose above 30 - 50 g/l. Four species, namely, Baeotendipes noctivagus, Cricotopus gr. cylindraceus, Tanytarsus gr. Mendax, and Paratanytarsus gr. quantuplex were identified.

ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CAULINIA MINOR (ALL.) COSS. ET GERM. (HYDROCARITACEAE, LILIOPSIDA) ON THE TERRITORY OF THE NIZHNY NOVGOROD REGION

The results of our analysis of the Caulinia minor distribution in the Nizhny Novgorod region on the basis of published sources, herbaria samples and the authors’ original data are presented. The species preferring water bodies with well-warmed shoals and high mineralization levels was revealed. The species entering the Red Data Book is justified due to its location on the border of the habitat. It is proposed to promote the rarity status of the species in the region; recommendations on its conservation are given.

VITALITY DYNAMICS OF TULIPA GESNERIANA L. (LILIACEAE, LILIOPSIDA) POPULATIONS IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES

The vitality of 38 Tulipa gesneriana populations in the Lower Volga region and adjacent territories was monitored during four agricultural seasons (2013 - 2016). A significant variability of this parameter, correlated with certain geographical trends, is shown within the territory surveyed. Two population clusters were revealed, differing by oppositely directed responses to external factors. A similar variability character was also obtained from ordination of the studied cenopopulations using the average values of morphological traits by means of the principal component analysis.

ON INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF HUNTING ANIMAL ACCOUNTING IN SMALL AREAS

The possibility of increasing the accuracy of hunting animal accounting by replacing the average values of various accounting parameters obtained for small areas by the average values of the same parameters obtained for larger areas is considered with the results of our winter route account of the moose Alces alces Linnaeus, 1758, held in the Saratov region as an example.

ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SPATIAL-TYPOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF COMMUNITIES OF AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES AND SMALL MAMMALS IN THE WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN

The differences in estimates of the relation of the population diversity of amphibians, reptiles and small mammals with environmental factors were analyzed by the species’ abundance and contributions to the Shannon index on the basis of their energy indices, as well as the difference in general representations of the spatial-typological variability of the communities of these animal groups with the West Siberian Plain as an example.

MYELOGRAMS OF MARSH (PELOPHYLAX RIDIBUNDUS) AND POOL FROGS (PELOPHYLAX LESSONAE) (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) OF CONVENTIONALLY “BACKGROUND” AND ANTHROPOGENOUSLY TRANSFORMED TERRITORIES IN THE NIZHNIY NOVGOROD REGION

Our comparative analysis of the myelograms of these lake and pond frogs has revealed a higher erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow in the conditionally "background" amphibians (group 1) as compared to the individuals from urbanized (group 2) territories. Restructuring of the bone marrow cellular composition and activation of the myeloid cells were the adaptive reaction of the amphibians to living in polluted conditions of their aquatic environment. The response variability of particular myelopoiesis elements reflected the plasticity of the organism’s compensatory abilities.

REGULARITIES OF CEMETERY FLORA FORMATION IN TOWNS OF THE SOUTHERN CIS-URALS, REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN

The results of our study of the partial florae of 5 cemeteries in two towns of the Southern Cis-Urals, namely, Sterlitamak and Salavat (Republic of Bashkortostan), are given. The cemeteries differed by their area, the time and nature of development, and forest cover. The taxonomical, biomorphological, geographical and ecological structures of the florae were studied, the levels of synantropization (from 50.7 to 67.5%) and adventization (from 19.4 to 37.5%) were estimated.

ESTIMATION OF THE ZONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES OF THE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES IN RIVERS OF THE MIDDLE AND LOWER VOLGA BASINS

A comparative analysis of the variability of the specific structure of macrozoobenthos communities in small and medium rivers of the Middle and Lower Volga basin was made. A statistically significant influence of the natural-climatic zone where the waterway is located and a manifestation of the latitudinal gradient of biodiversity were shown. The list of indicator species with the use of various criteria of biotopic correspondence was composed for each identified geographical zone.

ESTIMATION OF THE ZONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES OF THE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES IN RIVERS OF THE MIDDLE AND LOWER VOLGA BASINS

A comparative analysis of the variability of the specific structure of macrozoobenthos communities in small and medium rivers of the Middle and Lower Volga basin was made. A statistically significant influence of the natural-climatic zone where the waterway is located and a manifestation of the latitudinal gradient of biodiversity were shown. The list of indicator species with the use of various criteria of biotopic correspondence was composed for each identified geographical zone.

REACTION OF BANK VOLES (MYODES GLAREOLUS SCHREBER, 1780) TO TRAPS WITH THE ODOR OF SYNANTHROPIC HOUSE MICE (MUS MUSCULUS s.l.) (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA): A FIELD EXPERIMENT

Our hypothesis that the exoanthropic forest rodent species (e.g. bank voles) avoid the urinary odor of the synanthropic house mice was tested in field experiments in August 2016. One count of small mammals was carried out in each of two 4-ha fields by the capture-mark-recapture technique during 12 days. 200 live traps (100 points, 2 traps per point) were exposed and controlled twice a day (early in the morning and in the evening) in each count.

QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF SEASONAL ASPECTS OF THE BIRD POPULATION IN KEMEROVO CITY AND ITS VICINITIES

On the basis of the data of year-round accounts in the city of Kemerovo and its vicinities in 1999 - 2001 a quantitative assessment of seasonal aspects of the bird population is given. Seasonal changes of the total number of birds, the specific diversity, the dominating species, the total biomass, the amount of the energy transformed by birds, their multistage distribution and faunistic composition are characterized and compared for all habitats surveyed.

ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND VEGETATION COVER FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY TO ASSESS ITS RELATION WITH LARK HABITATS (ALAUDIDAE, AVES) IN THE TRANS-VOLGA SEMI-DESERT

The work was carried out in the Dzhanibek and Bokeyorda districts of the West Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan in two key areas. The possibility to study the relationship between the distribution of the abundance of various lark species and their nesting habitats detected using high-resolution satellite images, ground geobotanical descriptions and bird counts on routes with a variable width of the accounting band, was evaluated.

INFLUENCE OF LEAD NITRATE AND ACETATE, WHEN INTRODUCED INTO SOD-PODZOLIC SOIL, ON ITS BIOINDICATIVE CHARACTERISTICS

The influence of two lead salts on the enzymatic activity dynamics (urease, dehydrogenase, the total activity of hydrolases, acid phosphatase, and peroxidase) at lead ion concentrations of 10, 100, 300, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg in a model 21-day experiment was estimated. A significant inhibitory effect of lead nitrate on the total activity of hydrolases, dehydrogenase and peroxidase at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg (Pb2+)/kg was observed, while lead acetate was characterized by predominantly stimulating effect.

METHODOLOGY OF GENERALIZED ASSESSMENT OF THE INDICATORS OF SPECIFIC DIVERSITY AND THE NUMBERS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES WITH THE ZONE OF INFLUENCE OF THE PROJECTED NIZHNEZEISK RESERVOIR AS AN EXAMPLE

Problems of comparative estimation of the nature-conservation importance of various littoral zones arise when a strategy of gentle nature management in the areas of influence of both present and planned reservoirs is developed. Integral biodiversity indices to consider both the specific richness and the abundance indices of every recorded animal species were developed for the area of expected influence of the projected Lower Zeya Hydroscheme.

INFLUENCE OF THE VEGETATION STRUCTURE ON THE NUMBERS OF GREAT SNIPES (GALLINAGO MEDIA) (SCOLOPACIDAE, AVES) ON LEKS

The numbers of birds and the vegetation structure were analyzed at 13, 7 and 10 leks of Great Snipes (Gallinago media) formed on agricultural lands in the Moscow Region in 2014 - 2016, respectively. Not less than 120 - 130 birds were concentrated on the leks annually, of which 82 - 94% were males. The abundance of Great Snipes changed asynchronously at different leks. It depended on neither the lek location (floodplain or watershed) nor the soil penetrability therein.

FORMATION OF THE HYDROCHEMICAL REGIME OF THE UPPER REACHES OF THE URAL RIVER UNDER CONDITIONS OF TECHNOGENIC FLOW REGULATION

Changes in the chemical composition of water of the Ural River (upstream) along the section of regulation by a large artificial reservoir (the Iriklinsky reservoir) are shown. Decreased concentrations of major ions, organics, nutrients, and, especially, compounds of metals (copper, manganese, iron and aluminum) in the area below the reservoir were recorded. It was noted that physicochemical processes inside the Iriklinsky reservoir occurring at low water exchange could be the possible causes of these changes of the considered parameters.

Ecological peculiarities of the nesting and reproduction of Haematopus ostralegus longipes Buturlin, 1910 (Haematopodidae, Charadriiformes) in the course of the Medveditsa river (Saratov region)

The Haematopus ostralegus longipes population numbers in the conditions of the middle reaches of the Medveditsa river in the nesting period of 1996 – 2008 was stable, namely, 3 pairs, of which two, rarely three ones, nested annually. The egg laying size was 2–3 eggs. In the course of our many-year survey, a tendency has been established to significant reducing the reproduction success level against the background of transformations of the nesting and feeding stations, which is determined by the long-term tendency to reducing the water content in the river.

REGULARITIES OF THE RATIO OF THE SHELL LENGTH TO THE INDIVIDUAL WEIGHT OF MOLLUSKS FROM THE DREISSENA GENUS (DREISSENIDAE, BIVALVIA) IN THE VOLGOGRAD RESERVOIR

A regression analysis of the size and weight structure of the dreissenidae (D. bugensis and D. polymorpha) from the Volgograd reservoir was carried out. The power-dependence parameters in the resulting equation are different for the two mollusk species studied (W = 0.036L3.33 for D. bugensis and W = 0.064L3.32 for D. polymorpha). The established regression relationship between the individual body weight (W) and the mollusk’s shell length (L) has a high correlation degree: R2 = 0.96 for p = 0.01.

MORPHO-ANATOMICAL SEED ADAPTATION OF SOME SPECIES FROM THE IRIS L. (IRIDACEAE, ASPARAGALES) GENUS OF THE SARATOV REGIONAL FLORA TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Morpho-anatomical features of the seeds of seven species from the Iris genus of the Saratov regional flora, which are important in plant adaptation to environmental habitat conditions, are presented. The seeds of two species, namely: I. halophila Pall. and Iris pseudacorus L. seem the most revealing from this viewpoint. The strategy of I.

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