Статьи

TROPHOMETABOLIC POTENTIAL OF ESENIA FETIDA SAVIGNY, 1826 (OLIGOCHATA, LUMBRICIDAE) CAUSED BY COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND COPPER OXIDE IN THE SOIL

Depending on the concentrations of Cu and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) (50, 100 and 500 mg/kg dry matter) introduced into an artificial soil, the influence of Cu NPs upon E. fetida is much stronger than similar CuO doses. In particular, this was reflected in higher mortality (80%) and a 50% weight reduction of the worm (p ≤ 0.05) when the dose of Cu NPs was 500 mg/kg, whereas the validity limit of the test (20%) was not exceeded with a similar dose of CuO. Copper hyperaccumulation in the body of E.

SPECIFIC COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF THE WINTER ZOOPLANKTON IN THE RYBINSK RESERVOIR

The specific composition, seasonal dynamics, vertical and horizontal zooplankton distribution were studied in the pelagic zone and littoral of the Rybinsk reservoir in the winters of 2008 – 2016. The zooplankton abundance was found to be low (the abundance < 10,000 ind./m3, the biomass < 0.1 g/m3), by an order of magnitude lower than the values recorded in the 1970 – 1980s. As earlier, the abundance peak was observed in March. The cryophilic Cyclops kolensis prevailed among the crustaceans. A reproducing population of C.

VIRAL INFECTION OF PICOCYANOBACTERIAE IN THE RYBINSK RESERVOIR DURING THE FREEZE-UP PERIOD

The virioplankton and planktonic picocyanobacteria abundances in the deep and shallow waters of the Rybinsk reservoir during the freeze-up period (the water temperature within 0.3 - 0.9°C) varied within (37.1 - 84.1)×106 ((57.3±2.1)×106 on the average) particles/ml and (13.5 - 75.0)×103 ((48.7±3.4)×103 on the average) cells/ml, respectively. The fraction of picocyanobacteria with viruses attached to their cell surface was 6.5 - 29.0% (12.0±0.8% on the average). The proportion of visible infected cells was 0.7 - 7.6% (2.2±0.3% on the average) of the numbers of picocyanobacteriae.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF CYPRIPEDIUM GUTTATUM SW. (ORCHIDACEAE, MONOCOTYLEDONES) AT THE NORTHERN BORDER OF ITS HABITAT

The paper presents data on the reproductive biology of Cypripedium guttatum Sw. (Orchidaceae) in the Komi Republic, at the northern border of its habitat. Bees (Lasioglossum calceatum and L. brevicorne) are pollinators of C. guttatum in the region. The pollination efficiency is 21%. C. guttatum seeds are the largest ones among those of other orchid species in the region (1.11×0.22 mm). The size of seeds depends on the growing conditions of mother plants. The seed productivity of C.

ANALYSIS OF THE AFFORESTATION STATUS IN THE ARID CONDITIONS OF WESTERN KAZAKHSTAN

The current status of the forest fund is considered, the agroforestry melioration potential of the Western Kazakhstan region is assessed. The modern silviculture stage on the area studied is described. The biodiversity depletion is noted, the possibilities of conservation of the existing natural and artificial protective plantings in the extreme conditions of the Western Kazakhstan region are assessed. Floodplain forests, chopping sand massifs and estuary-type depressions, gully and ravine forests are considered as key botanical and landscape territories of the surveyed area.

ON THE CASTOR FIBER (CASTORIDAE, MAMMALIA) ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON THE ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE

Preliminary data on the Castor fiber activity influence on the ecosystem biodiversity of small rivers in three steppe clusters within the State Nature Reserve “Volga forest-steppe” were obtained. With zooplankton, amphibians and fish as examples, it was shown that after beaver-made ponds had appeared, the abundance of all these groups increased. In old ponds, the fish abundance decreases whilst the amphibian one continues to increase. In drained ponds, the zooplankton and amphibian abundance decreases while the fishes become more numerous, due to the appearance of better flowability.

PARTICULARITIES OF THE GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER (DENDROCOPOS MAJOR) (PICIDAE, PICIFORMES) WINTER SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN SARATOV CITY

The spatial distribution of the Great Spotted Woodpecker in Saratov city was studied in the winter seasons of 2004-2012. The bird distribution was either aggregated or random. The multi-year wintering sites of the Great Spotted Woodpecker are associated with the gully network of the suburban woodland park, city parks, forest belts and old gardens. Dependence between the spatial distribution and pine harvest was found. The bird distribution was grouped in productive years and random in lean years, respectively, because of woodpeckers’ movements to the woodland park and built-up areas.

HABITAT AND ADAPTATION CHARACTERIZATION OF HEDYSARUM GRANDIFLORUM PALL. (FABÁCEAE, DICOTYLÉDONES) IN THE SOUTHERN VOLGA UPLAND

The coenopopulations of Hedysarum grandiflorum Pall. in the southern Volga Upland within the administrative boundaries of the Saratov region were studied for the first time. The relief, parent rocks and soils in their habitats were characterized. Main environmental scales were supplemented by new data. Tolerance amplitudes by vital environmental factors were revealed. Adaptation features of this species to its environment are presented. H. grandiflorum is shown to be a quite stenobiontic species.

COUNTING FEATURE VARIABILITY OF THE CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS CARASSIUS (L.) (CYPRINIDAE, ACTINOPTERYGII) FROM SMALL PONDS WITH VARIOUS LEVELS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

The intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of ten counting features of the external morphology and skeleton in individuals of the crucian carp from three small ponds differing by their anthropogenic pollution level was studied. A statistically significant trend of the decreasing average population values with increasing the water salinity in the small ponds was revealed for five non-metric osteological signs.

ANADROMOUS STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE, ACTINOPTERYGII) OF THE DON RIVER ABOVE THE TSIMLYANSK DAM

Based on the literature, non-published and survey data, information on the occurrence of anadromous sturgeons after the regulation of the Don River downstream and upstream of the Tsimlyansk Dam is given. There were two peaks of mature adults approaching the dam, namely, in the 1950s and 1980s. The first mass peak was associated with the wild population existed then; the second one was a result of mass artificial breeding.

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