Статьи

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF CYPRIPEDIUM GUTTATUM SW. (ORCHIDACEAE, MONOCOTYLEDONES) AT THE NORTHERN BORDER OF ITS HABITAT

The paper presents data on the reproductive biology of Cypripedium guttatum Sw. (Orchidaceae) in the Komi Republic, at the northern border of its habitat. Bees (Lasioglossum calceatum and L. brevicorne) are pollinators of C. guttatum in the region. The pollination efficiency is 21%. C. guttatum seeds are the largest ones among those of other orchid species in the region (1.11×0.22 mm). The size of seeds depends on the growing conditions of mother plants. The seed productivity of C.

ANALYSIS OF THE AFFORESTATION STATUS IN THE ARID CONDITIONS OF WESTERN KAZAKHSTAN

The current status of the forest fund is considered, the agroforestry melioration potential of the Western Kazakhstan region is assessed. The modern silviculture stage on the area studied is described. The biodiversity depletion is noted, the possibilities of conservation of the existing natural and artificial protective plantings in the extreme conditions of the Western Kazakhstan region are assessed. Floodplain forests, chopping sand massifs and estuary-type depressions, gully and ravine forests are considered as key botanical and landscape territories of the surveyed area.

ON THE CASTOR FIBER (CASTORIDAE, MAMMALIA) ACTIVITY INFLUENCE ON THE ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE

Preliminary data on the Castor fiber activity influence on the ecosystem biodiversity of small rivers in three steppe clusters within the State Nature Reserve “Volga forest-steppe” were obtained. With zooplankton, amphibians and fish as examples, it was shown that after beaver-made ponds had appeared, the abundance of all these groups increased. In old ponds, the fish abundance decreases whilst the amphibian one continues to increase. In drained ponds, the zooplankton and amphibian abundance decreases while the fishes become more numerous, due to the appearance of better flowability.

PARTICULARITIES OF THE GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER (DENDROCOPOS MAJOR) (PICIDAE, PICIFORMES) WINTER SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN SARATOV CITY

The spatial distribution of the Great Spotted Woodpecker in Saratov city was studied in the winter seasons of 2004-2012. The bird distribution was either aggregated or random. The multi-year wintering sites of the Great Spotted Woodpecker are associated with the gully network of the suburban woodland park, city parks, forest belts and old gardens. Dependence between the spatial distribution and pine harvest was found. The bird distribution was grouped in productive years and random in lean years, respectively, because of woodpeckers’ movements to the woodland park and built-up areas.

HABITAT AND ADAPTATION CHARACTERIZATION OF HEDYSARUM GRANDIFLORUM PALL. (FABÁCEAE, DICOTYLÉDONES) IN THE SOUTHERN VOLGA UPLAND

The coenopopulations of Hedysarum grandiflorum Pall. in the southern Volga Upland within the administrative boundaries of the Saratov region were studied for the first time. The relief, parent rocks and soils in their habitats were characterized. Main environmental scales were supplemented by new data. Tolerance amplitudes by vital environmental factors were revealed. Adaptation features of this species to its environment are presented. H. grandiflorum is shown to be a quite stenobiontic species.

COUNTING FEATURE VARIABILITY OF THE CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS CARASSIUS (L.) (CYPRINIDAE, ACTINOPTERYGII) FROM SMALL PONDS WITH VARIOUS LEVELS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

The intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of ten counting features of the external morphology and skeleton in individuals of the crucian carp from three small ponds differing by their anthropogenic pollution level was studied. A statistically significant trend of the decreasing average population values with increasing the water salinity in the small ponds was revealed for five non-metric osteological signs.

ANADROMOUS STURGEONS (ACIPENSERIDAE, ACTINOPTERYGII) OF THE DON RIVER ABOVE THE TSIMLYANSK DAM

Based on the literature, non-published and survey data, information on the occurrence of anadromous sturgeons after the regulation of the Don River downstream and upstream of the Tsimlyansk Dam is given. There were two peaks of mature adults approaching the dam, namely, in the 1950s and 1980s. The first mass peak was associated with the wild population existed then; the second one was a result of mass artificial breeding.

ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MAJOR LIMITING FACTORS ON THE GROWTH OF A VIMBA BREAM POPULATION (VIMBA VIMBA VIMBA) (CYPRINIDAE) - AN INTRODUCED SPECIES IN THE VOLGOGRAD RESERVOIR

An attempt was made to estimate the impact of major limiting factors on changes of the vimba population size in the Volgograd reservoir. The vimba population size in the reservoir is already close to its limit by one hypothesis, based on the accessibility of spawning area resources. A 15-fold increase in the vimba population size is possible for at least two decades by another hypothesis, providing for the population restriction by food resources.

ON THE SPECIFIC COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF VOLES (MAMMALIA, CRICETIDAE, MICROTINA) IN THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS

Molecular-genetic typing was done for voles in the vicinity of the Pslukh forest station (the south of the Caucasus nature reserve), the Krasnaya Polyana, and the Utrish nature reserve (the Abrau peninsula). Based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, the voles from the Krasnaya Polyana and Pslukh station were attributed to Robert’s snow vole (Chionomys roberti), whereas the animals from the Utrish nature reserve belong to the Eastern-European vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis).

ECOLOGICAL-PHYTOCENOTIC ASSESSMENT OF THE POPULATION STATUS OF THE RARE SPECIES DICTAMNUS GYMNOSTYLIS STEV. (RUTACEAE, MAGNOLIOPSIDA) IN THE SOUTHERN URALS

The results of our ecological-phytocenotic assessment of the natural coenopopulations of the rare (in Bashkortostan Republic) species Dictamnus gymnostylis Steven are given. In the Southern Urals, the species is on the northeastern border of its habitat. The ontogenetic, demographic and vitality structures of 20 coenopopulations were studied, the existence optima were found. The majority of the surveyed coenopopulations of D. gymnostylis have densities within 1 - 10 ind./sq.m and an incomplete ontogenetic spectrum, the basic ontogenetic spectrum being centered.

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