Статьи

FORAGING BEHAVIOR FEATURES OF THE BLACKBIRD TURDUS MERULA L. AND FIELDFARE TURDUS PILARIS L. (TURDIDAE, PASSERIFORMES)

The foraging behavior of the Blackbird and Fieldfare in the city of Kaliningrad was studied. A similarity of the feeding habitats used by thrushes is noted. The main type of fodder stations during the reproductive period are lawns with low vegetable cover, rare-fied as a result of human influence, while these are squares and gardens with fruit bushes and trees during the autumn and winter period. The use of fodder stations and fodder objects of anthropogenic origin is noted for the blackbird out of its period of re-production.

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA IN FOREST LAKES OF KARELIA

The total abundance of bacteria, the numbers of saprophytic, oligotrophic and sulfate -reducing microorganisms, the shapes of bacterial cells, the primary and bacterial production, organic matter destruction, and the rate of sulfate reduction were studied in small Karelian lakes during the stagnation period. It is shown that the uneven vertical distribution of light, temperature, oxygen and hydrogen sulfide creates ecological niches for the development of many various groups of microorganisms.

SOME ECOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF BULBOCODIUM VERSICOLOR (KER-GAWL.) SPRENG. (COLCHICACEAE, MAGNOLIOPHYTA) IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

The paper presents the results of our four-year observation of Bulbocodium versicolor (Ker-Gawl.) Spreng populations in the Saratov and Volgograd regions. A low ecological plasticity of the species was established. Although the species grows in steppe phytocenoses that vary in composition and structure, the specimens’ morphology was rather conservative, which can be explained by the homogeneity of the species’ vegetation conditions over the territory under study during active vegetation and flowering. It is shown that in the Lower Volga region, B.

TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF TWO SUBSPECIES OF THE MIDDAY GERBIL (MERIONES MERIDIANUS NOGAIORUM, M. M. PSAMMOPHILUS) (MURIDAE, MAMMALIA) UNDER SEMI-NATURAL CONDITIONS

The territorial structure and social organization of artificial groups of two subspecies of the midday gerbil (Meriones meridianus nogaiorum, M. m. psammophilus) were studied under semi-natural conditions. No significant differences in the space usage system of the subspecies under comparison were found. The structure of social interactions was found to be identical in females but different in males: M. m. nogaiorum males exhibited dominance hierarchy, whilst a despotic dominance was found in M. m. psammophilus males. M. m. psammophilus females also exhibited dominance hierarchy.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF MOUNTAIN AND PLAIN CHERNOSEM SOILS IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS (WITHIN KABARDINO-BALKARIA)

A comparative analysis of biological properties of several subtypes of mountain and plain chernosems in the Central Caucasus (within Kabardino-Balkaria) was conducted. Statistically significant differences between the parameters of biological activity in the upper horizons (0 - 20 cm) of the soils under study were revealed. Mountain chernosems are characterized by the high humus content (by 38% on average), an increased activity of dehydrogenase (by 42%) and urease (by 35%), and all microbial parameters (by 12 - 53%).

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND SPECIFICITY OF TERRITORIAL LINKS AMONG BIRDS OF INNER-MOUNTAIN AND HIGH-MOUNTAIN DAGHESTAN

The results of our bird counts carried out in 1996-2017 in the Inner-mountain and High-mountain Dagestan are analyzed. The bird specific composition, average popula-tion abundance and ecological structure of the avifauna in two difficult-to-reach mountain areas of the republic are described for the first time.

THE TENGMALM’S OWL (AEGOLIUS FUNEREUS) (STRIGIDAE, AVES) IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus caucasicus But.) inhabits dark coniferous, pine and deciduous forests in the mountains of the North Caucasus from the City of Tuapse in the west to the Inner Dagestan in the east, rising to pine forests to a height of 1,900 - 2,000 m above sea level. During its winter wanderings it occasionally occurs in the foothills, but almost does not go out to the piedmont plains. Winter records in the steppe regions of Ciscaucasia may refer to nomadic specimens of a nominate subspecies (A. f.

EVOLUTIONARY AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN POPULATIONS OF SICISTA BETULINA (RODENTIA, DIPODOIDEA) FROM VALDAI HILLS

Chromosomal (routine, C-banding) and molecular (cytb) data for Sicista of the betulina group from the northern (Valdai National Park), central (the main watershed of East European Plain) and southeast (Upper Volga Basin) parts of Valdai and, for comparison, from the Moscow and Central Chernozem regions are presented and generalized. The birch mice from Valdai and the Moscow area belonging to the 32-chromosomal S. betulina, and that from the Central Chernozem area belonging to S. strandi (2n = 44) are confirmed.

STOPOVERS OF SWANS (CYGNUS CYGNUS AND C. BEWICKII) (ANATIDAE, AVES) IN THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF SOUTHERN KARELIA DURING THE SPRING MIGRATION

Spring migrations of the Whooper swan and Bewick's swan were studied on a farm-land near the town of Olonets during 1997 - 2017. Usually the majority of swans crossed the territory of the agricultural landscape in transit, and only a small portion of the birds stayed on it for feeding for 1 - 2 days. In 2017, swans formed a mass migration stopover on the fields, 340 to 1,328 individuals were counted on it for 11 days, whose majority (about 90%) were Bewick's swans.

ON THE SYNTAXONOMY OF SOME PHYTOCENOSES IN MOUNTAIN AND PIEDMONT ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS (WITHIN KABARDINO-BALKARIA)

Three associations (Carici michelii-Bromopsidetum ripariae ass. nov., Amorio ambiguae-Alchemilletum orthotrichae ass. nov., and Cicerbito macrophyllae-Aethusetum сynapii ass. nov.) have been distinguished and characterized as a result of our ecological and floristic classification of phytocenoses in the mountain and piedmont ecosystems of Kabardino-Balkaria (the Central Caucasus) within the Tersky and Elbrussian variants of vertical zonation.

Pages